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# The working principle of incremental encoder

by：HENGXIANG
2020-11-07

There are many types of rotary encoder, their properties is roughly same, but there are differences in use process, we today about the working principle of incremental rotary encoder to explain to you, hope you type of incremental rotary encoder can be understanding and correct application of incremental rotary encoder.
Incremental rotary encoder through internal two photosensitive accept tube into the sequence and phase relationship of Angle encoder, get the Angle encoder Angle displacement increase (
Positive direction)
Or decrease (
Negative direction)
。
After the joint digital circuit especially microcontroller, incremental rotary encoder in Angle and angular velocity measurement is more absolute rotary encoder with the advantages of cheap and simple.
Below for incremental rotary encoder the inner workings of A, B two points corresponding to two photosensitive accept tube, A, B, distance between two points is S2, Angle encoder grating spacing S0 and S1, respectively.
When Angle encoder with a uniform rotation speed, then shows the output waveform in the figure S0: S1, S2 ratio and the actual figure of S0: S1, S2 ratio is the same, the same Angle encoder with other rotates at a constant speed, the speed of the output waveform figure of S0: S1, S2 ratio and the actual figure of S0: S1, S2 ratio remains the same.
If do variable motion Angle encoder, put it into multiple movement cycle (
In the following definition)
Combination, then each motion cycle of the output waveform in the figure S0: S1, S2 ratio and the actual figure of S0: S1, S2 ratio remains the same.
Through the output waveform figure shows the timing for each movement cycle clockwise motion counterclockwise movement AB11010010AB11100001 we put the A, B preserved in the output value, and the next A, B, the output value, you can easily get the movement direction of the Angle encoder, if the grating lattice S0 S1, namely S0 and S1 radian Angle is the same, and S2 equals 1/2 S0, then can get the Angle Angle encoder displacements of S0 radian Angle of 1/2, divided by the milli elimination time, get the Angle encoder angular displacement movement.
When S0 S1 and S2 equals S0 1/2, 1/4 movement cycle can get direction and displacement Angle, if S0 is not equal to S1, S2 is not equal to 1/2 of S0, so to one movement cycle can get the direction and displacement Angle.
Incremental rotary encoder working principle: by A central shaft of light code disc, on which there are circular and dark scribed line, have read photoelectric emission and receiving devices, obtain four groups of sine wave signal into A, B, C, D, 90 degree phase difference (each sine wave
Relative to a cycle of 360 degrees)
, C, D will signal the reverse, superimposed on A and B two phase, can strengthen stability of signal;
Every turn output another Z pulse to represent a zero reference.
Because of A, B two phase difference of 90 degrees, but only through A phase in the former or B phase in the former, with forward and inversion of discriminant encoder, through the zero pulse, encoder zero reference can be obtained.
After watching the believe about what is incremental rotary encoder and the working principle of incremental rotary encoder, if there is incremental rotary encoder application problems, may at any time with the Shanghai electronic products company technology consultation discussion.

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